My definition of “the basics” as used here is

(as required by the PTS)


  • An understanding of fundamental aerodynamics.

  • An understanding of what each control surface does and why.

  • The ability to coordinate with the rudder.

  • An awareness of the nose attitude and the ability to use it and power to control speed.

  • An awareness of where the airplane will go if a given trend continues (planning ahead). 

  • The ability to use the rudder to control torque and similar effects (P-factor, etc.).